Bridged-Race Population Estimates for Census 2000 and 2010
Starting in the 2000 decennial census, the U.S Census Bureau has used the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) revised standards for the classification of Federal data on race and ethnicity. Thus, race data on the 2000 and 2010 census are not comparable with race data from data systems that continue to collect data using the 1977 OMB standards. The 1977 standards specified four single-race categories: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, black, and white. The 1997 standards required that Federal data collection programs allow respondents to select one or more race categories when responding to a query on their racial identity. This provision means that there are potentially 31 race groups, depending on whether an individual selects one, two, three, four, or all five of the race categories. For comparability, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), in collaboration with the U.S. Census Bureau, developed methodology to bridge the race groups in Census 2000 and 2010 to the four single-race categories specified under the 1977 standards. Even though Federal programs were to fully implement the revised standards by January 1, 2003, the transition from the 1977 to the 1997 OMB standards has been uneven. Federal systems which rely on information obtained from vital records through state-based programs, such as the National Vital Statistics System, have not yet been able to fully implement the 1997 standards. For example, the U.S. standard birth and death certificates were revised in 2003 to include the 1997 OMB standards. However, as of 2011, 41 states, New York City, and the District of Columbia had adopted the 2003 U.S. standard birth certificate, and 36 states, New York City, and the District of Columbia had adopted the 2003 U.S. standard death certificate.
MethodologyThe bridging methodology was developed using information from the 1997-2000 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS provides a unique opportunity to investigate multiple-race groups because, since 1982, it has allowed respondents to choose more than one race but has also asked respondents reporting multiple races to choose a primary race. The bridging methodology developed by NCHS involved the application of regression models relating person-level and county-level covariates to the selection of a particular primary race by the multiple-race respondents. Bridging proportions derived from these models were applied by the U.S. Census Bureau to the Census 2000 Modified Race Data Summary file. This application resulted in bridged counts of the April 1, 2000 and April 1, 2010 resident single-race populations for the four racial groups specified in the 1977 OMB standards.
National Vital Statistics System-Mortality (NVSS-M)
Vital statistics mortality data are a fundamental source of demographic, geographic, and cause-of-death information. This is one of the few sources of comparable health-related data for small geographic areas over an extended time period. The data are used to present characteristics of those dying in the United States, to determine life expectancy, and to compare mortality trends with those in other countries.
MethodologyThe National Vital Statistics System Mortality component (NVSS-M) obtains information on deaths from the registration offices of each of the 50 states, New York City, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and Northern Mariana Islands. By law, registration of deaths is the responsibility of the funeral director. The funeral director obtains demographic data from an informant. The physician in attendance at the death is required to certify the cause of death. When death is from other than natural causes, a coroner or medical examiner may be required to examine the body and certify cause. State death certificates are modeled on a U.S. Standard Certificate that is revised periodically. States provide the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) with death records in electronic format.